How Has the Human Brain Changed since the Stone Age?

Studies have consistently shown that brain size isn't an indicator of intelligence. In fact, your brain isn't even as big as it would have been if you had been born some 40,000 years ago. According to research, the modern human brain is approximately 10 percent smaller than it once was -- a change that marks the reversal of cranial expansion, which began roughly 4 million years ago. Back then, our brains contained about 1.5 cups (355 ml) of gray matter. That number began to grow with evolution, and by about 130,000 years ago, our cranial capacity had quadrupled to 6 cups (1.4 l). That's when things stopped and even reversed, so that now the average human brain holds about 5.7 cups (1.3 l). A number of theories have been tossed out to explain the change, with perhaps the most interesting being that as we grew together as a people, we didn't have to know as much individually. In other words, cooperation created a collective intelligence that cost us cranial space but gained us civilization as we know it.

Does gray matter really matter?:

  • The sperm whale has the biggest brain in the animal kingdom, weighing on average 18 pounds (8 kg) and growing to 500 cubic inches (8,193 cubic cm) in size.
  • The human brain requires 20 percent of the body's oxygen and blood.
  • A leech's body is divided into 32 segments, each of which is controlled by its own ganglia -- the equivalent of having a brain in each segment.

Frequently Asked Questions

How has the size of the human brain changed since the Stone Age?

Since the Stone Age, the human brain has undergone subtle changes in size. According to research from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, early Homo sapiens had brains that were roughly 10% larger than ours. However, this decrease in size does not necessarily indicate a decrease in cognitive ability, as modern brains have become more efficient and structurally complex. (Source:

What structural changes have occurred in the human brain since the Stone Age?

Structural changes in the human brain since the Stone Age include increased organization and connectivity. The modern brain has evolved to have specialized regions for different functions, such as language and abstract thinking. Neuroimaging studies suggest that there's been a refinement in the neural circuits with enhanced communication between different brain areas, leading to more efficient processing. (Source:

How have changes in the human brain since the Stone Age affected our cognitive abilities?

Changes in the human brain since the Stone Age have significantly enhanced our cognitive abilities. The development of more complex neural networks has allowed for advanced problem-solving, language, and abstract thinking. These changes have facilitated the development of sophisticated tools, art, culture, and technology. The brain's evolution has been crucial in adapting to new environments and challenges, enabling humans to become the dominant species on Earth. (Source:

Can we attribute any behavioral changes in modern humans to brain evolution since the Stone Age?

Behavioral changes in modern humans can indeed be attributed to brain evolution since the Stone Age. As our ancestors faced new environmental pressures, social complexities, and dietary changes, the brain adapted to handle more intricate social interactions, strategic planning, and language use. These evolutionary modifications have influenced behaviors related to cooperation, communication, and cultural transmission, which are central to human societies today. (Source:

What role has diet played in the evolution of the human brain since the Stone Age?

Diet has played a significant role in the evolution of the human brain since the Stone Age. The shift from a foraging lifestyle to agriculture and animal domestication provided a more reliable food supply, which supported brain growth. Additionally, the consumption of high-energy foods, such as meat and cooked foods, is believed to have been crucial for the development of larger brains with higher energy demands. This dietary change has been a key factor in enabling the cognitive leap seen in modern humans. (Source:

More Info: Discover magazine

Discussion Comments


Perhaps the sense of smell was more important 40,000 years ago, so that part of the brain became less important?

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