Paleontologists examining mastodon bones found in the San Diego area in 1992 have recently proposed that what we know about early humans in North America may be all wrong. In a study published this year in the journal Nature, the research team claims that they see evidence of early man in North America dating back to around 130,000 years ago. Previous research had pegged the arrival of early man on the continent to around 24,000 years ago, so the much-earlier date is controversial, to say the least. The new research is based on the fact that the mastodon bones -- including two tusks, three molars, 16 ribs, and more than 300 bone fragments -- show impact marks, suggesting that they were struck with hard objects. In fact, the researchers also found five “hulking stones,” which they say could have been used as hammers and anvils.
The mystery of the mastodon bones:
- Two distinct clusters of broken mastodon bones surrounded the stones, suggesting to the researchers that the bones were smashed in that location.
- Some of the shattered bones contained spiral fractures, indicating that they were broken while still “fresh,” the authors wrote.
- Attempts at radiocarbon dating were unsuccessful because the bones did not have enough carbon-containing collagen. Instead, the researchers used uranium-thorium dating -- a technique often used to check the dates derived from radiocarbon dating.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the current consensus on when the earliest humans arrived in North America?
According to recent studies, the consensus among archaeologists is that the earliest humans arrived in North America at least 15,000 years ago. This is supported by evidence from various archaeological sites, such as the Cooper‚Äôs Ferry site in Idaho, which dates human presence to around 16,000 years ago. However, some controversial findings, like those at the Monte Verde site in Chile, suggest human activity as early as 18,500 years ago, indicating that the timeline for human arrival in North America may still be subject to revision as new evidence emerges.
What kind of archaeological evidence supports the presence of early humans in North America?
Archaeological evidence for early human presence in North America includes stone tools, hearths, and other artifacts found at various sites across the continent. For instance, the Clovis culture, known for its distinctive projectile points, provides evidence of human activity dating back to around 13,000 years ago. Additionally, pre-Clovis sites like Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania and Buttermilk Creek Complex in Texas have yielded artifacts that suggest an even earlier human presence.
How did the earliest humans reach North America?
The prevailing theory is that the earliest humans reached North America via the Bering Land Bridge, a land connection that once existed between Siberia and Alaska during the last Ice Age. As sea levels were lower, this bridge allowed for migration from Asia to North America. These first peoples would have followed herds of large game across this land bridge, eventually spreading throughout the continent. Genetic evidence supports this theory, showing a link between Native American populations and those of eastern Siberia.
Are there any alternative theories to the Bering Land Bridge hypothesis?
Yes, there are alternative theories to the Bering Land Bridge hypothesis. One such theory suggests a coastal migration route, where early humans used boats to travel along the Pacific coastline, reaching North America earlier than previously thought. Another hypothesis proposes that people could have migrated from Europe to North America via an Atlantic coastal route, supported by similarities between Solutrean stone tool technology in Europe and Clovis points in North America. However, these theories are less widely accepted and require more evidence for broader support.
How has new technology influenced our understanding of when the earliest humans arrived in North America?
New technology, such as improved radiocarbon dating methods and DNA analysis, has significantly refined our understanding of when the earliest humans arrived in North America. Advances in genetic sequencing allow researchers to trace the ancestry and migration patterns of ancient populations more accurately. Additionally, sophisticated dating techniques applied to archaeological finds have helped to establish more precise timelines for human activity at various sites, leading to the discovery of evidence that predates what was previously known.