Mark Twain was the pen name of American writer and humorist Samuel Langhorne Clemens. Born 30 November 1835, he is often referred to as “the father of American literature.” He published 28 books, as well as numerous short stories, during his long and prosperous career. Mark Twain is also the first writer to trademark his name and incorporate himself as a business enterprise.
Twain left school at the age of 13, shortly after his father died of pneumonia. He began working as a printer’s apprentice, later joining his brother’s newspaper as an editorial assistant and newspaper reporter. This practical experience is credited with helping him to develop his distinctive writing style.
Mark Twain first began to achieve public recognition for his humorous writing when his short story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" was published in The New York Saturday Press in 1865. This gave him the boost he needed to allow his first book, The Innocents Abroad , to be released in 1869. Based on his travels through Europe, The Innocents Abroad quickly became a bestseller that allowed Twain to enjoy a level of financial success previously unheard of for a writer.
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was published in 1876, followed by The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1885. Despite being Twain’s best-known novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is often criticized as racist by those who object to the dialogue he included to add “local color” to the story. In fact, according to the American Library Association, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has earned the dubious honor of being the fifth most frequently censored book in the United States.
Mark Twain married Olivia Langdon in 1870. The couple had four children: Langdon Clemens, Susy Clemens, Clara Clemens, and Jean Clemens. Unfortunately, since three of his children died young, there are no direct descendants alive today.
Mark Twain died on 21 April 1910 of angina pectoris. As the first American literary celebrity, his death made the front page of newspapers across the United States. His fans were given a chance to pay their respects in New York City before his body was buried next to his wife and children in Elmira, NY.
Today, Twain’s work continues to remain an important part of the American literary landscape. Fans of his writing frequently flock to the Mark Twain Museum in Hannibal, MO and the Calaveras County Fair’s Jumping Frog Jubilee in Angels Camp, CA.