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A well known figure in the early 19th century, Tecumseh was a member of the Shawnee tribe of Native Americans who worked within a movement to preserve the heritage and land holdings that were slowly going from the possession of the natives of the country to the European settlers. This work led to Tecumseh’s involvement with British forces during the War of 1812.
Born around the middle of the 18th century, Tecumseh’s given name would more accurately be presented as Tecumtha or Tekamthi. His father was a prominent Shawnee warrior who died in battle. Tecumseh was raised by his older brother, Cheeksuakalo, to be a warrior for his people. With a given name that is translated as “Panther in the Sky,” Tecumseh eventually settled in Ohio, where his younger brother Tenskwatawa was gaining a reputation as the leader of a new movement.
Essentially, the movement was geared toward abandoning the traditions of the white settlers that was beginning to work into Shawnee values, stop the ceding of Shawnee land to the new settlers, and in general preserve the culture of the tribe. Unlike other movements, the effort under the direction of Tenskwatawa sought to achieve these ends under any means necessary. While Tenskwatawa was always acknowledged as the spiritual leader of this effort, Tecumseh came to be revered as the strategic leader for the movement. By 1808, tensions within the local Shawnee community led to Tecumseh, his brother, and their followers relocating and forming a new settlement.
Over the next several years, Tecumseh was actively involved in the opposition to the ceding of additional lands to the United States. He actively sought to overturn the Treaty of Fort Wayne, which ceded roughly three million acres to the new white government. While these were not Shawnee lands, Tecumseh worked under the common assumption that lands owned by any tribe were the property of all Native Americans collectively. He began to travel extensively around to different tribes, attempting to gain support for his position. During 1810 and 1811, Tecumseh was able to marshal some support from the Creek tribe, as well as small pockets of adherents in other tribes. The growth of opposition eventually led to US forces marching on the settlement headed by Tenskwatawa in late 1811, burning the town to the ground.
The destruction of their central base of operations led Tecumseh to continue soliciting support from other tribes, and also led him to ally with the British in an attempt to regain control of the American land. With a high level of skill in warfare, he proved to be an important asset to the British forces. Due in part to his military prowess, British forces were able to secure the surrender of Detroit in August of 1812.
However, the tide of the war had turned within a year, with Tecumseh handling rearguard activities to protect the withdrawal of British forces against the advancing American army. The combination of Native American and British fighters was followed into Canada, where the decisive Battle of the Thames settled the war once and for all. It was during this battle that Tecumseh was killed in 1813. While there were eyewitnesses who attested to the fact of his death, the body of Tecumseh was never recovered.