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Who Was Sawney Bean?

Niki Acker
By
Updated May 23, 2024
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Be forewarned: the following article is very gruesome and not for the faint of heart!

Sawney Bean (or Beane) was the head of a legendary clan of inbred cannibals living in a cave in Galloway, Scotland in the 16th century. The story of Sawney Bean was famously recorded in a mid-18th century publication on criminal cases called The Newgate Calendar. The outlandishness of many parts of the story and the lack of any corroborating accounts or evidence lead historians to doubt its veracity, or at least to suspect that the Newgate Calendar version was significantly exaggerated. However, the tale struck the morbid imagination of the public and has remained a favorite horror story for centuries. Sawney Bean and his family have inspired such modern day horror film classics as The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974) and The Hills Have Eyes (1977).

The Newgate Calendar recounts that Alexander "Sawney" Bean was the son of laborers. As a young man, he tired of the family work and ran off with a woman. The two took up residence in a cave and began a life of lawlessness. They had children and grandchildren, through incest, until the family numbered 48, and made their living by robbing, murdering, and cannibalizing travelers who passed their way.

The Bean family was supposedly at large for 25 years, during which time the local communities tried and executed many innocent people in their search for the culprit behind all the disappearances. Anyone who encountered Sawney Bean and his family never lived to tell about it. Their settlement did not attract any attention, as it was deep inside a cave that was partially obscured during high tide.

Eventually, one man survived an encounter with the Sawney Bean clan, though his wife did not. He met up with a large group of men from the fair he had just left and told them about his experience. As a result, King James VI of Scotland dispatched a hunting party and the Sawney Bean family was finally discovered and brought to justice, after killings estimated to be in the thousands. Their lair, when discovered, contained ample evidence of their thievery and cannibalism. Every member of the family was executed without trial.

The tale of Sawney Bean has many problematic aspects for historians. First of all, there are no primary records of the event. Various versions, appearing mostly in cheaply printed pamphlets from the 18th century, vary widely in the details. Nutritionists have argued that 48 cannibals could not have survived for 25 years without killing significantly more people than the Sawney Bean family allegedly killed. As "Sawney" was a generic name for Scotsmen at the time this story first appeared in print, some have speculated that the Sawney Bean story was fabricated in its entirety as anti-Scottish propaganda.

Despite the lack of evidence that any part of the Sawney Bean legend is true, purveyors of horror entertainment and the tourism industry in Scotland and England continue to exploit it. A Sawney Bean exhibit can be seen in the London Dungeon Wax Museum, as well as in the Edinburgh Dungeon in Scotland. Bennane Cave in Ayrshire, formerly Galloway, is claimed to be the cave where Sawney Bean and his family made their home.

PublicPeople is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Niki Acker
By Niki Acker
"In addition to her role as a PublicPeople editor, Niki Foster is passionate about educating herself on a wide range of interesting and unusual topics to gather ideas for her own articles. A graduate of UCLA with a double major in Linguistics and Anthropology, Niki's diverse academic background and curiosity make her well-suited to create engaging content for WiseGeekreaders. "

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Discussion Comments
By anon349394 — On Sep 25, 2013

What a crazy story. Definitely not related to Texas Chainsaw, but I can totally see "The Hills Have Eyes" being somewhat based on this story. This totally gave me the creeps.

By anon348704 — On Sep 19, 2013

As a child my mother (maiden name Beane) told me that two of the sons of Sawney Beane escaped across the border into England and settled in Norfolk. There is evidence in my family tree of two persons of Scottish descent in or around the late 1600's. Oddly enough, I don't care for rare meat.

By anon17238 — On Aug 25, 2008

The Texas Chain Saw Massacre has multiple inspirations, as well as much that was simply invented for the movie. The character of Leatherface, among other elements, were indeed loosely based on Ed Gein, but the idea of the cannibalistic family feeding on lost travellers has affinities with Sawney Bean and similar tales. In fact, all of Ed Gein's family members were deceased before he became an active serial killer, whereas Leatherface's family plays a major role in the film.

By anon17119 — On Aug 22, 2008

Texas Chainsaw massacre had nothing to do with this. That story was an exaggerated version of the ed gain story.

Niki Acker
Niki Acker
"In addition to her role as a PublicPeople editor, Niki Foster is passionate about educating herself on a wide range of...
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