We are independent & ad-supported. We may earn a commission for purchases made through our links.

Advertiser Disclosure

Our website is an independent, advertising-supported platform. We provide our content free of charge to our readers, and to keep it that way, we rely on revenue generated through advertisements and affiliate partnerships. This means that when you click on certain links on our site and make a purchase, we may earn a commission. Learn more.

How We Make Money

We sustain our operations through affiliate commissions and advertising. If you click on an affiliate link and make a purchase, we may receive a commission from the merchant at no additional cost to you. We also display advertisements on our website, which help generate revenue to support our work and keep our content free for readers. Our editorial team operates independently from our advertising and affiliate partnerships to ensure that our content remains unbiased and focused on providing you with the best information and recommendations based on thorough research and honest evaluations. To remain transparent, we’ve provided a list of our current affiliate partners here.

Who Was Typhoid Mary?

By Bronwyn Harris
Updated May 23, 2024
Our promise to you
PublicPeople is dedicated to creating trustworthy, high-quality content that always prioritizes transparency, integrity, and inclusivity above all else. Our ensure that our content creation and review process includes rigorous fact-checking, evidence-based, and continual updates to ensure accuracy and reliability.

Our Promise to you

Founded in 2002, our company has been a trusted resource for readers seeking informative and engaging content. Our dedication to quality remains unwavering—and will never change. We follow a strict editorial policy, ensuring that our content is authored by highly qualified professionals and edited by subject matter experts. This guarantees that everything we publish is objective, accurate, and trustworthy.

Over the years, we've refined our approach to cover a wide range of topics, providing readers with reliable and practical advice to enhance their knowledge and skills. That's why millions of readers turn to us each year. Join us in celebrating the joy of learning, guided by standards you can trust.

Editorial Standards

At PublicPeople, we are committed to creating content that you can trust. Our editorial process is designed to ensure that every piece of content we publish is accurate, reliable, and informative.

Our team of experienced writers and editors follows a strict set of guidelines to ensure the highest quality content. We conduct thorough research, fact-check all information, and rely on credible sources to back up our claims. Our content is reviewed by subject matter experts to ensure accuracy and clarity.

We believe in transparency and maintain editorial independence from our advertisers. Our team does not receive direct compensation from advertisers, allowing us to create unbiased content that prioritizes your interests.

Mary Mallon, known as Typhoid Mary, was the first healthy person in the United States to be identified as a carrier of typhoid fever. Mary worked as a cook and unknowingly infected 53 different people: three of whom died from typhoid. She became famous, partly because she was the first healthy carrier of typhoid, but mostly because she adamantly refused to admit her role in spreading the disease and would not take the necessary precautions to prevent its spread.

It is now known that typhoid fever can be spread by food or water that has been handled by a carrier. Carriers are generally healthy people who have survived typhoid and have no further symptoms, but continue to have the typhoid bacteria surviving in their body. In Typhoid Mary's case, she may have actually been born with typhoid, as her mother was infected. Carriers can pass the bacteria along by poor hygiene when handling food and drink.

Mary Mallon made a living as a cook in the New York City area in the early 1900's. Between 1900 and 1907, she infected 22 people with typhoid fever, with one fatality. At times, Mary cared for the people in her household who came down with typhoid, unknowingly making them even more ill. Typhoid Mary changed employment frequently, as her employers and their families became ill.

New York City sanitary worker George Soper, hired by the landlord of a house that Mary had worked at, investigated that specific typhoid outbreak. Soper hypothesized that Mary could be a possible carrier of typhoid fever. When he explained to Typhoid Mary that she might be spreading typhoid, she absolutely refused to cooperate with his requests for stool and urine samples. She claimed to have had negative test results for typhoid, although she may have been in remission at this time.

Soper continued to try and convince Mary Mallon that she was a typhoid carrier, but at this time, the idea of a healthy person being able to spread disease was not well-known and seemed unlikely. Soper published his findings in The Journal of the American Medical Association in 1906. Typhoid Mary became convinced that she has being harassed and persecuted for no reason. She was soon taken into custody.

The health inspector in New York City found Typhoid Mary to be a carrier. She was put in quarantine for three years in a hospital on an island off of New York, and released when she promised not to work with food any more. As soon as she was released, however, she began working as a cook again, under the name of Mary Brown. She was forcibly quarantined again, for the rest of her life, becoming somewhat of a celebrity and granted interviews.

Mary Mallon died of pneumonia in 1938 at the age of 69, six years after being paralyzed by a stroke. An autopsy was conducted, finding live typhoid bacteria present in her gall bladder. Many historians view Mary as a symbol of the prejudice that existed at the time against Irish immigrants and the working class in general. "Typhoid Mary" is now used as a generic term for someone who is a danger to the public because they carry a dangerous disease.

PublicPeople is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.

Discussion Comments

By BioNerd — On Mar 01, 2011

Mary Mallon was scapegoated at a time when the Irish immigrants were being severely persecuted in New York City. It was only natural for her to think that the accusations were groundless.

By rjohnson — On Feb 05, 2008

I've also heard people who are sick but aren't careful to confine it from others being called Typhoid [insert their name here]. As in, "Keep Typhoid Patty away from me! I don't want to get sick too!"

PublicPeople, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.

PublicPeople, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.